T-Remodeling of the Pulmonary Artery Bifurcation for Pulmonary Artery Origin Stenosis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery








congenital heart disease; pulmonary arteries; reoperation; restenosis


BACKGROUND: Various surgical techniques are utilized for reconstructing hypoplastic pulmonary arteries (PAs) in patients with conotruncal anomalies and at times, may be susceptible to restenosis and reoperation. We reviewed our experience with a simple technique of T-shaped remodeling of the PA bifurcation. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2019, 31 patients underwent T-remodeling of central PAs by a single cardiac surgeon. The PA bifurcation was opened cranially, and the opening was augmented with an oval-shaped patch effectively transforming the V-shaped bifurcation into a T-shaped bifurcation. Both origins of the PAs were enlarged, even in the instance of single PA origin stenosis. RESULTS: Median age at time of T-remodeling was 17 months (range: 7 weeks to 14 years). The following cardiac morphologies were observed: tetralogy of Fallot (n = 12, 39%), pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (n = 8, 26%), truncus arteriosus (n = 6, 19%), pulmonary atresia with VSD (n = 3, 9.7%), and transposition of the great arteries (n = 2, 6.5%). Thirteen patients (42%) had previous central shunt, and eight patients (26%) had previous modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. There were no operative mortalities. Immediately after T-remodeling, echocardiographic estimates of right ventricle to PA gradient decreased from 42 [interquartile range 28-58] mm Hg to 20 [12-36] mm Hg ( = .03). Freedom from reoperation on the PA bifurcation for the entire cohort was 100% at one year, 88% (95% CI 68%-96%) at five years and 82% (57%-93%) at ten years. CONCLUSIONS: T-remodeling for PA origin stenosis is a safe procedure with excellent freedom from reoperation that is easily reproducible and applicable to patients with all cardiac morphologies.