Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and chronic kidney disease with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a narrative review

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Cardiovascular diabetology








Cardio-kidney metabolic; Cardiorenal syndrome; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Diabetic kidney disease; Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors; Type 2 diabetes mellitus


BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common and interrelated conditions, each with a significant burden of disease. HF and kidney disease progress through pathophysiologic pathways that culminate in end-stage disease, for which T2DM is a major risk factor. Intervention within these pathways can disrupt disease processes and improve patient outcomes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have been investigated in patient populations with combinations of T2DM, CKD, and/or HF. However, until recently, the effect of these agents in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) was not well studied. MAIN BODY: The aim of this review is to summarize key information regarding the interaction between HFpEF, CKD, and T2DM and discuss the role of SGLT2 inhibition in the management of patients with comorbid HFpEF and CKD, with or without T2DM. Literature was retrieved using Boolean searches for English-language articles in PubMed and Google Scholar and included terms related to SGLT2is, HFpEF, T2DM, and CKD. The reference lists from retrieved articles were also considered. CONCLUSION: SGLT2is are efficacious and safe in treating HFpEF in patients with comorbid CKD with and without T2DM. The totality of evidence from clinical trials data suggests there are benefits in using SGLT2is across the spectrum of left ventricular ejection fractions, but there may be a potential for different renal effects in the different ejection fraction groups. Further analysis of these clinical trials has highlighted the need to obtain more accurate phenotypes for patients with HF and CKD to better determine which patients might respond to guideline-directed medical therapies, including SGLT2is. CI confidence interval, EF ejection fraction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HF heart failure, HHF hospitalization for HF, HR hazard ratio, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, SGLT2i sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, UACR urine albumin-creatinine ratio. a Mean value, unless otherwise stated, b SGLT2i vs. placebo, c Data reanalyzed using more conventional endpoints (≥ 50% sustained decrease in eGFR, and including renal death) (UACR at baseline not stated in trial reports).