Posttraumatic hydrocephalus: Recent advances and new therapeutic strategies

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Health science reports








animal model; cerebrospinal fluid; posttraumatic hydrocephalus; stem cell therapy; traumatic brain injury; ventriculoperitoneal shunt


BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly is a condition brought on by an overabundance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricular system. The major contributor to posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), especially in individuals with occupations set in industrial settings. A variety of criteria have been employed for the diagnosis of PTH, including the combination of neurological symptoms like nerve deficits and headache, as well as an initial improvement followed by a worsened relapse of altered consciousness and neurological deterioration, which is detected by computed tomography-brain imaging that reveals gradual ventriculomegaly. AIM: In this article, we discuss and summarize briefly the current understandings and advancements in the management of PTH. METHODS: The available literature for this review was searched on various bibliographic databases using an individually verified, prespecified approach. The level of evidence of the included studies was considered as per the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine recommendations. RESULTS: The commonly practiced current treatment modality involves shunting CSF but is often associated with complications and recurrence. The lack of a definitive management strategy for PTH warrants the utilization of novel and innovative modalities such as stem cell transplantations and antioxidative stress therapies. CONCLUSION: One of the worst complications of a TBI is PTH, which has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Even though there hasn't been a successful method in stopping PTH from happening, hemorrhage-derived blood, and its metabolic by-products, like iron, hemoglobin, free radicals, thrombin, and red blood cells, may be potential targets for PTH hindrance and management. Also, using stem cell transplantations in animal models and antioxidative stress therapies in future studies can lower PTH occurrence and improve its outcome. Moreover, the integration of clinical trials and theoretical knowledge should be encouraged in future research projects to establish effective and updated management guidelines for PTH.


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