Perspectives and challenges of small molecule inhibitor therapy for FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Annals of hematology




AML; FLT3; Gilteritinib; Midostaurin; Precision medicine; Quizartinib; Treatment


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous clonal disease characterized overall by an aggressive clinical course. The underlying genetic abnormalities present in leukemic cells contribute significantly to the AML phenotype. Mutations in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are one of the most common genetic abnormalities identified in AML, and the presence of these mutations strongly influences disease presentation and negatively impacts prognosis. Since mutations in FLT3 were identified in AML, they have been recognized as a valid therapeutic target resulting in decades of research to develop effective small molecule inhibitor treatment that could improve outcome for these patients. Despite the approval of several FLT3 inhibitors over the last couple of years, the treatment of patients with FLT3-mutated AML remains challenging and many questions still need to be addressed. This review will provide an up-to-date overview of our current understanding of FLT3-mutated AML and discuss what the current status is of the available FLT3 inhibitors for the day-to-day management of this aggressive disease.