Management of Localized Prostate Cancer in Men With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Analysis of a Large Retrospective Cohort

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Clinical genitourinary cancer








AIDS; HIV; Plwha; Prostate Cancer; Radiation therapy


INTRODUCTION: We aimed to characterize the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of HIV-positive patients with clinically localized, prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of HIV-positive patients from a single institution with elevated PSA and diagnosis of PCa by biopsy. PCa features, HIV characteristics, treatment type, toxicities, and outcomes were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Seventy-nine HIV-positive patients were included with a median age at PCa diagnosis of 61 years-old and median duration from HIV infection to PCa diagnosis of 21 years. The median PSA level at diagnosis and Gleason Score was 6.85 ng/mL and 7, respectively. The 5-year PFS was 82.5% with the lowest survival observed in patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) + radiation therapy (RT), followed by cryosurgery (CS). There were no reports of PCa-specific deaths, and the 5-year overall survival was 97.5%. CD4 count declined post-treatment in pooled treatment groups that included RT (P = .02). CONCLUSION: We present the characteristics and outcomes of the largest cohort of HIV-positive men with prostate cancer in published literature. RP and RT ± ADT is well-tolerated in HIV-positive patients with PCa as seen by the adequate biochemical control and mild toxicity. CS resulted in worse PFS compared to alternative treatments for patients within the same PCa risk group. A decline in CD4 counts was observed in patients treated RT, and further studies are needed to investigate this relationship. Our findings support the use of standard-of-care treatment for localized PCa in HIV-positive patients.