FIGO good practice recommendations on surgical techniques to improve safety and reduce complications during cesarean delivery

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics


163 Suppl 2




cesarean delivery; complications; hysterotomy; incision; surgical techniques; uterine hemorrhage


FIGO is actively contributing to the global effort to reduce maternal morbidity, mortality, and disability worldwide. Cesarean delivery rates are increasing globally, without signs of slowing down. Bleeding associated with cesarean delivery has become an important cause of hemorrhage-related maternal deaths in many low- and middle-income countries. Correct surgical techniques to improve safety and reduce complications of cesarean delivery is of the utmost importance. This article presents FIGO's good practice recommendations for effective surgical techniques to reduce cesarean complications. Evidence-based information is included where data are available. An expanded WHO Surgical Safety Checklist for maternity cases is suggested. Different incision techniques through the layers of the abdominal wall with appropriate indications are discussed. Hysterotomy through a transverse incision is described, as are indications for low vertical and classical incisions. Important precautions when extracting the fetus are explained. Uterine closure includes a safe method ensuring adequate reapproximation of the upper segment if a vertical incision is made. The paper concludes with the management of two common bleeding problems following delivery of the placenta.


Prevention and Community Health