Outcomes up to age 36 months after congenital Zika virus infection-U.S. states
BACKGROUND: To characterize neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children up to 36 months of age with congenital Zika virus exposure. METHODS: From the U.S. Zika Pregnancy and Infant Registry, a national surveillance system to monitor pregnancies with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, pregnancy outcomes and presence of Zika associated birth defects (ZBD) were reported among infants with available information. Neurologic sequelae and developmental delay were reported among children with ≥1 follow-up exam after 14 days of age or with ≥1 visit with development reported, respectively. RESULTS: Among 2248 infants, 10.1% were born preterm, and 10.5% were small-for-gestational age. Overall, 122 (5.4%) had any ZBD; 91.8% of infants had brain abnormalities or microcephaly, 23.0% had eye abnormalities, and 14.8% had both. Of 1881 children ≥1 follow-up exam reported, neurologic sequelae were more common among children with ZBD (44.6%) vs. without ZBD (1.5%). Of children with ≥1 visit with development reported, 46.8% (51/109) of children with ZBD and 7.4% (129/1739) of children without ZBD had confirmed or possible developmental delay. CONCLUSION: Understanding the prevalence of developmental delays and healthcare needs of children with congenital Zika virus exposure can inform health systems and planning to ensure services are available for affected families. IMPACT: We characterize pregnancy and infant outcomes and describe neurodevelopmental abnormalities up to 36 months of age by presence of Zika associated birth defects (ZBD). Neurologic sequelae and developmental delays were common among children with ZBD. Children with ZBD had increased frequency of neurologic sequelae and developmental delay compared to children without ZBD. Longitudinal follow-up of infants with Zika virus exposure in utero is important to characterize neurodevelopmental delay not apparent in early infancy, but logistically challenging in surveillance models.
Neelam, Varsha; Woodworth, Kate R.; Chang, Daniel J.; Roth, Nicole M.; Reynolds, Megan R.; Akosa, Amanda; Carr, Christopher P.; Anderson, Kayla N.; Mulkey, Sarah B.; DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Biddle, Cara; Lee, Ellen H.; Elmore, Amanda L.; Scotland, Sarah J.; Sowunmi, Similoluwa; Longcore, Nicole D.; Ahmed, Muhammad; Langlois, Peter H.; Khuwaja, Salma; Browne, Shea Elizabeth; Lind, Leah; Shim, Kyoo; Gosciminski, Michael; Blumenfeld, Rachel; Khuntia, Shreya; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Locklear, Autumn; Chan, Mary; Willabus, Teri'; Tonzel, Julius; Marzec, Natalie S.; and Barreto, Nianest Alers, "Outcomes up to age 36 months after congenital Zika virus infection-U.S. states" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 3473.