Anti-Mullerian hormone and spontaneous puberty in a diverse US Turner syndrome clinic cohort: A cross-sectional study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Clinical endocrinology




Anti-Mullerian hormone; Turner syndrome; cross-sectional studies; gonadotropins; karyotype; minipuberty; puberty


OBJECTIVE: Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) concentrations have been proposed as a marker of spontaneous puberty and future fertility in Turner syndrome (TS). Gonadotropins during minipuberty may also provide a clue to ovarian function but there is insufficient data to inform utility in the routine clinical management of TS. Our objective was to describe the distribution of AMH in a cross-sectional cohort of patients in a TS specialty clinic, and correlate with spontaneous puberty and karyotype, as well as gonadotropins during the minipuberty of infancy in a smaller subset of patients aged 2-9 months. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of patients seen in the TS clinic at Children's National Hospital from 1/1/2019 to 8/24/2022, to assess AMH and correlate with karyotype and spontaneous puberty. RESULTS: Among 114 patients (median age 9.6 year, 0.08-22 year), AMH values were detectable in only (40/104) 38%, and higher mean AMH (2.7 ± 0.95 ng/mL) was seen in mosaic 45,X/46,XX karyotype compared to 45,X (0.03 ± 0.14 ng/mL) (p < .001), and structurally abnormal-X karyotype (0.11 ± 0.5) (p = .0003). Mean AMH was higher (1.4 ± 1.6 ng/mL) among those with spontaneous menarche compared with spontaneous thelarche but no menarche. AMH was detectable in 2/10 during minipuberty in those with the lowest luteinizing hormone (LH). CONCLUSIONS: Our institutional data reflects a diverse cohort of patients seen in a TS specialty clinic in the United States, showing correlation of AMH with karyotype and spontaneous menarche, as well as description of gonadotropins during minipuberty highlighting their clinical relevance. Studies in larger, prospective longitudinal cohorts will help determine their predictive value and role in the care of TS.