Higher energy consumption in the evening is associated with increased odds of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from the 2016-2018 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (7 th KNHANES)

Document Type

Journal Article

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Epidemiology and health




Chrono-nutrition; Dynamic time warping; Meal timing; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; Temporal dietary Patterns


OBJECTIVES: Chrono-nutrition emphasizes meal timing in preventing obesity and metabolic disorders. This study explores the impact of temporal dietary patterns(TDPs) on obesity and metabolic syndrome(MetS) in Korean adults aged 20 to 65 years. METHODS: We utilized dynamic time warping method and Kernel k-means clustering to investigate diet quality and the odds ratios(ORs) of obesity and MetS with different TDPs using data from the 7th Korea Nutrition and Health Examination Survey. RESULTS: Participants were divided into three groups based on relative energy intake over 24 hours. After adjusting for age and gender, Cluster 3(with the highest proportion of energy intake in the evening) had the lowest Healthy Eating Index scores compared to other clusters. Following adjustment for key covariates, Cluster 3 showed the highest values for Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Compared to Cluster 1(with a lower proportion of energy intake in the evening), Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 had ORs for obesity of 1.12 (95% Confidence Interval(CI), 0.97-1.30) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03-1.37), respectively. For MetS, the ORs were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08-1.48) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.61) when comparing Cluster 2 and 3 to Cluster 1. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that individuals with higher energy intake in the evening have increased odds of obesity and MetS, even after adjusting for major covariates, including age and total energy intake.


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