Chemotherapy-Induced Neoantigen Nanovaccines Enhance Checkpoint Blockade Cancer Immunotherapy

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



ACS nano




chemotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunogenicity; immunotherapy; nanovaccine


Chemotherapeutics have the potential to increase the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies by stimulating the production of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and eliciting mutations that result in the production of neoantigens, thereby increasing the immunogenicity of cancerous lesions. However, the dose-limiting toxicity and limited immunogenicity of chemotherapeutics are not sufficient to induce a robust antitumor response. We hypothesized that cancer cells treated with ultrahigh doses of various chemotherapeutics artificially increased the abundance, variety, and specificity of DAMPs and neoantigens, thereby improving chemoimmunotherapy. The chemotherapy-induced (IVCI) nanovaccines manufactured from cell lysates comprised multiple neoantigens and DAMPs, thereby exhibiting comprehensive antigenicity and adjuvanticity. Our IVCI nanovaccines exhibited enhanced immune responses in CT26 tumor-bearing mice, with a significant increase in CD4/CD8 T cells in tumors in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. The concept of IVCI nanovaccines provides an idea for manufacturing and artificial enhancement of immunogenicity vaccines to improve chemoimmunotherapy.


School of Medicine and Health Sciences Resident Works