The Use of Rescue Insulin in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE)
OBJECTIVE: To describe rescue insulin use and associated factors in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: GRADE participants (type 2 diabetes duration <10 years, baseline A1C 6.8%-8.5% on metformin monotherapy, N = 5,047) were randomly assigned to insulin glargine U-100, glimepiride, liraglutide, or sitagliptin and followed quarterly for a mean of 5 years. Rescue insulin (glargine or aspart) was to be started within 6 weeks of A1C >7.5%, confirmed. Reasons for delaying rescue insulin were reported by staff-completed survey. RESULTS: Nearly one-half of GRADE participants (N = 2,387 [47.3%]) met the threshold for rescue insulin. Among participants assigned to glimepiride, liraglutide, or sitagliptin, rescue glargine was added by 69% (39% within 6 weeks). Rescue aspart was added by 44% of glargine-assigned participants (19% within 6 weeks) and by 30% of non-glargine-assigned participants (14% within 6 weeks). Higher A1C values were associated with adding rescue insulin. Intention to change health behaviors (diet/lifestyle, adherence to current treatment) and not wanting to take insulin were among the most common reasons reported for not adding rescue insulin within 6 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Proportionately, rescue glargine, when required, was more often used than rescue aspart, and higher A1C values were associated with greater rescue insulin use. Wanting to use non-insulin strategies to improve glycemia was commonly reported, although multiple factors likely contributed to not using rescue insulin. These findings highlight the persistent challenge of intensifying type 2 diabetes treatment with insulin, even in a clinical trial.
Hollander, Priscilla A.; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Butera, Nicole M.; Kazemi, Erin J.; Ahmann, Andrew J.; Fattaleh, Basma N.; Johnson, Mary L.; Killean, Tina; Lagari, Violet S.; Larkin, Mary E.; Legowski, Elizabeth A.; Rasouli, Neda; Willis, Holly J.; and Martin, Catherine L., "The Use of Rescue Insulin in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE)" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 3346.
Biostatistics and Bioinformatics