Integrated Care Models: HIV and Substance Use

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Current HIV/AIDS reports








HIV; Harm reduction; Integrated care models; Medication treatment of opioid use disorders; Mobile health clinics; Substance use disorder


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Behaviors and practices associated with substance use contribute to lack of HIV virologic suppression and onward transmission. In the USA, many recent HIV outbreaks have been connected with substance use. Evidence-based strategies for integrating care of those at risk for and living with HIV and who use substances continue to evolve. This review, based on scientific and medical literature through March 2023, provides an overview and evaluation of initiatives for integrated care aimed to serve patients at risk for and with HIV and a substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Integrated care services can improve health outcomes for patients at risk for and with HIV and a substance use disorder; for instance, treatment for an opioid use disorder can help improve HIV viral suppression. Brick-and-mortar facilities can provide successful care integration with appropriate clinic leadership to support multidisciplinary care teams, up-to-date provider training, and sufficient pharmacy stock for substance use treatment. Delivering healthcare services to communities (e.g., mobile healthcare clinics and pharmacies, telehealth) may prove to be an effective way to provide integrated services for those with or at risk of HIV and substance use disorders. Incorporating technology (e.g., mobile phone applications) may facilitate integrated care. Other venues, including harm reduction programs and carceral settings, should be targets for integrated services. Venues providing healthcare should invest in integrated care and support legislation that increases access to services related to HIV and substance use.