Training in Residency and Provision of Reproductive Health Services Among Family Medicine Physicians

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



JAMA network open








IMPORTANCE: Contraception and abortion services are essential health care, and family medicine (FM) physicians are an important part of the workforce providing this care. Residency could inform the reproductive health services FM physicians provide. OBJECTIVE: To determine which residency training factors are associated with FM physicians' provision of reproductive health services to Medicaid beneficiaries. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional, population-based observational study of inpatient and outpatient FM physicians who completed residency between 2008 and 2018 and treated at least 1 Medicaid beneficiary in 2019 was conducted from November 2022 to March 2023. The study used 2019 American Medical Association Masterfile and Historical Residency file, as well as the 2019 Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System claims. EXPOSURES: Residency training in community-based or reproductive health-focused programs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The outcomes were providing the following to at least 1 Medicaid beneficiary in 2019: prescription contraception (pill, patch, and/or ring), intrauterine device (IUD) and/or contraceptive implant, and dilation and curettage (D&C). Odds of providing each outcome were measured using correlated random-effects regression models adjusted for physician, residency program, and county characteristics. RESULTS: In the sample of 21 904 FM physician graduates from 410 FM residency programs, 12 307 were female (56.3%). More than half prescribed contraception to Medicaid beneficiaries (13 373 physicians [61.1%]), with lower proportions providing IUD or implant (4059 physicians [18.5%]) and D&C (152 physicians [.7%]). FM physicians who graduated from a Reproductive Health Education in Family Medicine program, which fully integrates family planning into residency training, had significantly greater odds of providing prescription contraception (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42), IUD or implant (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.28-2.48), and D&C (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.02-6.44). Physicians who completed residency at a Teaching Health Center, which emphasizes community-based care, had higher odds of providing an IUD or implant (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.91). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cross-sectional study of FM physicians providing Medicaid service, characteristics of residency training including community-based care and integration of family planning training are associated with greater odds of providing reproductive health services. With growing reproductive health policy restrictions, providing adequate training in reproductive health is critical to maintaining access to care, especially for underserved populations.


Health Policy and Management