The Microbiome and Protein Carbamylation: Potential Targets for Protein-Restricted Diets Supplemented with Ketoanalogues in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease
carbamylation; chronic kidney disease; diet; dysbiosis; microbiome; posttranslational protein modification; protein restricted; urea; uremic toxin
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), metabolic derangements resulting from the interplay between decreasing renal excretory capacity and impaired gut function contribute to accelerating disease progression and enhancing the risk of complications. To protect residual kidney function and improve quality of life in conservatively managed predialysis CKD patients, current guidelines recommend protein-restricted diets supplemented with essential amino acids (EAAs) and their ketoanalogues (KAs). In clinical studies, such an approach improved nitrogen balance and other secondary metabolic disturbances, translating to clinical benefits, mainly the delayed initiation of dialysis. There is also increasing evidence that a protein-restricted diet supplemented with KAs slows down disease progression. In the present review article, recent insights into the role of KA/EAA-supplemented protein-restricted diets in delaying CKD progression are summarized, and possible mechanistic underpinnings, such as protein carbamylation and gut dysbiosis, are elucidated. Emerging evidence suggests that lowering urea levels may reduce protein carbamylation, which might contribute to decreased morbidity and mortality. Protein restriction, alone or in combination with KA/EAA supplementation, modulates gut dysbiosis and decreases the generation of gut-derived uremic toxins associated, e.g., with cardiovascular disease, inflammation, protein energy wasting, and disease progression. Future studies are warranted to assess the effects on the gut microbiome, the generation of uremic toxins, as well as markers of carbamylation.
Faerber, Valentin; Kuhn, Katharina S.; Garneata, Liliana; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kalim, Sahir; Raj, Dominic S.; and Westphal, Martin, "The Microbiome and Protein Carbamylation: Potential Targets for Protein-Restricted Diets Supplemented with Ketoanalogues in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 3271.