Influence of Preoperative Parameters on the Ratio of Keratometric Change per Diopter of Attempted Spherical Equivalent (∆K/∆SEQ) for Myopic Correction Within LASIK, PRK, and SMILE

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)






age; cornea; cylinder; keratometry; nomogram; pachymetry; refractive surgery; spherical equivalent


PURPOSE: To compare 3 of the most common corneal refractive procedures; PRK, LASIK, and SMILE assessing ΔK/ΔSEQ ratio and its correlation with preoperative demographics including age, keratometry, pachymetry, cylinder value, and attempted myopic correction. The goal was to analyze the relative strength of each preoperative parameter in accounting for changes in ∆K/∆SEQ. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 370 eyes from 102 male and 97 female patients (173 eyes PRK, 153 LASIK, and 44 SMILE) with ages ranging from 20 to 51 underwent refractive surgery for myopia between -0.25 and -7.71 D manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE). All surgeries were performed at a single surgery center in Draper, Utah. The Pentacam was used for all optical measurements and data were gathered pre-operatively and then again 1-year post-operatively. Only patients who achieved emmetropia at a visual acuity of 20/25 or better were included. RESULTS: The mean ΔK/ΔSEQ ratio for LASIK (0.839 ± 0.020) was significantly greater than that of PRK (0.775 ± 0.022) and SMILE (0.709 ± 0.046). Age was found to negatively correlate with ΔK/ΔSEQ for both LASIK (r = -0.177) and SMILE (r = -0.451) procedures. Pre-op keratometry was found to negatively correlate with ΔK/ΔSEQ for LASIK (r = -0.202) but not for PRK or SMILE. Pre-op pachymetry was not correlated with ΔK/ΔSEQ for any of the procedures. Attempted myopic spherical equivalent (SEQ) correction was positively correlated with ΔK/ΔSEQ for LASIK (r = 0.236), PRK (r = 0.459), and SMILE (r = 0.304). Lastly, pre-op cylinder value was found to be correlated to ΔK/ΔSEQ in SMILE (r = -0.367), but not in LASIK or PRK. CONCLUSION: The ΔK/ΔSEQ ratio not only differs depending on the procedure being done but also by pre-operative factors such as age, keratometry, attempted correction, and cylinder value. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the attempted correction had the greatest effect on ∆K/∆SEQ out of all parameters in LASIK and PRK. For SMILE, age had the greatest predictive value of the change in ∆K/∆SEQ. While the exact effect of these parameters will vary by surgeon, all of these should be factored into a refractive surgeon's nomograms in order to achieve optimal visual outcomes for their patients.


School of Medicine and Health Sciences Resident Works