Persistence of antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines among participants in the COVID-19 Community Research Partnership
Antibody responses; COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; SARS-CoV-2; Serology
INTRODUCTION: High levels of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in the community correlate with protection from COVID-19 illness. Measuring COVID-19 antibody seroprevalence and persistence may elucidate the level and length of protection afforded by vaccination and infection within a population. METHODS: We measured the duration of detectable anti-spike antibodies following COVID-19 vaccination in a multistate, longitudinal cohort study of almost 13,000 adults who completed daily surveys and submitted monthly dried blood spots collected at home. RESULTS: Overall, anti-spike antibodies persisted up to 284 days of follow-up with seroreversion occurring in only 2.4% of the study population. In adjusted analyses, risk of seroreversion increased with age (adults aged 55-64: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 3.92] and adults aged > 65: aHR 3.59 [95% CI: 2.07, 6.20] compared to adults aged 18-39). Adults with diabetes had a higher risk of seroreversion versus nondiabetics (aHR 1.77 [95% CI: 1.29, 2.44]). Decreased risk of seroreversion was shown for non-Hispanic Black versus non-Hispanic White (aHR 0.32 [95% CI: 0.13, 0.79]); college degree earners versus no college degree (aHR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.46, 0.81]); and those who received Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine versus Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 (aHR 0.35 [95% CI: 0.26, 0.47]). An interaction between healthcare worker occupation and sex was detected, with seroreversion increased among male, non-healthcare workers. CONCLUSION: We established that a remote, longitudinal, multi-site study can reliably detect antibody durability following COVID-19 vaccination. The survey platform and measurement of antibody response using at-home collection at convenient intervals allowed us to explore sociodemographic factors and comorbidities and identify predictors of antibody persistence, which has been demonstrated to correlate with protection against disease. Our findings may help inform public health interventions and policies to protect those at highest risk for severe illness and assist in determining the optimal timing of booster doses.Clinical trials registry: NCT04342884.
Berry, Andrea A.; Tjaden, Ashley H.; Renteria, Jone; Friedman-Klabanoff, DeAnna; Hinkelman, Amy N.; Gibbs, Michael A.; Ahmed, Amina; Runyon, Michael S.; Schieffelin, John; Santos, Robert P.; Oberhelman, Richard; Bott, Matthew; Correa, Adolfo; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Uschner, Diane; and Wierzba, Thomas F., "Persistence of antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines among participants in the COVID-19 Community Research Partnership" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 3183.
Biostatistics and Bioinformatics