Nanodepots Encapsulating a Latency Reversing Agent and Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Enhance Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against an in vitro Model of Latent HIV
International journal of nanomedicine
3BNC117; ACH-2 cells; NK cell therapy; PLGA nanodepots; TNF-α; broadly neutralizing antibody; latency reversing agent; latent HIV reservoirs; shock and kill strategies
PURPOSE: Current antiretroviral therapies (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not curative, as the virus persists in latent reservoirs, requiring lifelong adherence to ART and increasing the risk of co-morbidities. "Shock and kill" approaches to reactivate HIV from latent reservoirs followed by administration of anti-HIV drugs represent a promising strategy for eradicating latent HIV. To achieve effective shock and kill, we describe a strategy to eradicate the HIV reservoir that combines latency reversing agents (LRAs), broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), and natural killer (NK) cells. This strategy utilizes a polymer nanodepot (ND) that co-encapsulates the LRA and bnAb to reactivate latent infection and elicit enhanced cytotoxicity from co-administered NK cells. METHODS: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NDs were synthesized using the nanoprecipitation method to co-encapsulate an LRA (TNF-α) and a bnAb (3BNC117) (TNF-α-3BNC117-NDs). ACH-2 cells were used as a cellular model of latent HIV infection. An NK92 subline, genetically modified to constitutively express the Fc receptor CD16, was administered to ACH-2 cells in combination with TNF-α-3BNC117-NDs. ACH-2 cell death and extracellular p24 were measured via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Stable PLGA NDs co-encapsulated TNF-α and 3BNC117 with high efficiencies and released these agents in physiological conditions. NK92 phenotype remained similar in the presence of TNF-α-3BNC117-NDs. TNF-α released from NDs efficiently reactivated HIV in ACH-2 cells, as measured by a 3.0-fold increase in the frequency of intracellular p24 positive cells. Released 3BNC117 neutralized and bound reactivated virus, targeting 57.5% of total ACH-2 cells. Critically, TNF-α-3BNC117-NDs significantly enhanced NK92 cell-mediated killing of ACH-2 cells (1.9-fold) and reduced extracellular levels of p24 to baseline. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of our novel ND-based tripartite strategy to reactivate HIV from latently infected cells, generate an HIV-specific site for bnAb binding, and enhance the killing of reactivated HIV-infected target cells by NK92 cells.
Ghofrani, Joshua; Bowen, Allan; Chen, Jie; Balakrishnan, Preethi Bala; Powell, Allison B.; Cherukula, Kondareddy; Cruz, Conrad Russell; Jones, R Brad; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Sweeney, Elizabeth E.; and Fernandes, Rohan, "Nanodepots Encapsulating a Latency Reversing Agent and Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Enhance Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against an in vitro Model of Latent HIV" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 3024.