Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction
Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) is the cornerstone of pharmacological therapy for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and consists of the four main drug classes: renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, evidence-based β-blockers, mineralocorticoid inhibitors and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. The recommendation for use of GDMT is based on the results of multiple major randomized controlled trials demonstrating improved clinical outcomes in patients with HFrEF who are maintained on this therapy. The effect is most beneficial when medications from the four main drug classes are used in conjunction. Despite this, there is an underutilization of GDMT, partially due to lack of awareness of how to safely and effectively initiate and titrate these medications. In this review article, we describe the different drug classes included in GDMT and offer an approach to initiation and effective titration in both the inpatient as well as outpatient setting.
Patel, Jay; Rassekh, Negin; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Deedwania, Prakash; Sheikh, Farooq H.; Ahmed, Ali; and Lam, Phillip H., "Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 2795.