Early Clinical Variables Associated With Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children
OBJECTIVE: Determine patient-specific factors known proximate to the presentation to emergency care associated with the development of refractory convulsive status epilepticus (RSE) in children. METHODS: An observational case-control study was conducted comparing pediatric patients (1 month - 21 years) with convulsive SE whose seizures stopped after benzodiazepines (BZD) and a single second-line antiseizure medication (ASM) (responsive established status epilepticus; rESE) with patients requiring more than a BZD and a single second-line ASM to stop their seizures (RSE). These sub-populations were obtained from the pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG) study cohort. We explored clinical variables that could be acquired early after presentation to emergency medical services with univariate analysis of the raw data. Variables with p<0.1 were retained for univariable and multivariable regression analysis. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to age and sex- matched data to obtain variables associated with RSE. RESULTS: We compared data from a total of 595 episodes of pediatric SE. Univariate analysis demonstrated no differences in time to the first BZD (RSE 16 min (IQR 5-45); rESE 18 min (IQR 6-44), p=0.068). Time to second-line ASM was shorter in RSE patients (RSE 65 min; rESE 70 min; p=0.021). Both univariable and multivariable regression analysis revealed a family history of seizures (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 -0.70, p = 0.0022) or a prescription for rectal diazepam (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.078 - 0.53, p = 0.0012) were associated with decreased odds of RSE. CONCLUSIONS: Time to initial BZD or second-line ASM was not associated with progression to RSE in our cohort of patients with rESE. A family history of seizures and a prescription for rectal diazepam were associated with a decreased likelihood of progression to RSE. Early attainment of these variables may help care for pediatric rESE in a more patient-tailored manner. COE: This study provides class II evidence that patient and clinical factors may predict RSE in children with convulsive seizures.
Peariso, Katrina; Arya, Ravindra; Glauser, Tracy; Abend, Nicholas S.; Aguilar, Cristina Barcia; Amengual-Gual, Marta; Anderson, Anne; Appavu, Brian L.; Brenton, J Nicholas; Carpenter, Jessica; Chapman, Kevin E.; Clark, Justice; Gaillard, William D.; Gaínza-Lein, Marina; Goldstein, Joshua; Goodkin, Howard; Grinspan, Zachary; Guerriero, Rejean M.; Horn, Paul S.; Huh, Linda; Kahoud, Robert; Kelley, Sarah A.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Kapur, Kush; Lai, Yi-Chen; Marquis, B Oyinkan; McDonough, Tiffani; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Morgan, Lindsey; Novotny, Edward; Ostendorf, Adam P.; and Payne, Eric T., "Early Clinical Variables Associated With Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 2737.