A Landscape Analysis of Prevention of Vertical Transmission Program Data and Interventions from Fiscal Years 2019 to 2021

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)




INTRODUCTION: In 2020, an estimated 150,000 infants acquired HIV infection through vertical transmission. With pregnant and breastfeeding women facing numerous social and health system barriers, continuity of care for mother-infant pairs (MIPs) requires prioritized engagement for timely infant HIV testing and linkage to treatment. METHODS: PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting indicators were analyzed from across 14 USAID-supported countries across three fiscal years (FYs) (October 2018 - September 2021): number of HIV-exposed infants (HEI) with a sample collected for an HIV test by two months of age; percentage of HEI who received an HIV test by two months of age (EID 2mo coverage); and final outcome status of HEIs. Qualitative information on implementation of PVT interventions was gathered via a survey disseminated to USAID/PEPFAR country teams. RESULTS: From October 2018 to September 2021, 716,383 samples were collected for infant HIV tests. EID 2mo coverage increased across the FYs from 77.3% in FY19 to 83.5% in FY21. Eswatini, Lesotho, and South Africa demonstrated the highest EID 2mo coverage across all three FYs. Burundi (93.6%), DRC (92%) and Nigeria (90%) had the highest percentage of infants with a known final HIV outcome. Qualitative survey data showed that the most implemented interventions used by the countries were mentor mothers, appointment reminders, cohort registers and joint provision of MIP services. CONCLUSIONS: Achieving eVT requires a client-centered and multi-pronged approach, typically combining several PVT interventions. Country and program implementers should utilize person-centered solutions to best target MIPs to be retained in the continuum of care.


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