Sleep duration and chronotype of pregnant women in the United States: An online cross-sectional survey study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Preventive medicine reports






Chronotype; Maternal-child health; Pregnancy; Sleep duration


Sleep is an important behavior, and during pregnancy plays a critical role in promoting the health of both woman and child. Therefore, identifying and addressing sleep parameters during pregnancy, and associated disparities in maternal-child health outcomes, is a public health priority. This studied aimed to examine chronotype and sleep duration in pregnant women by sociodemographic factors. An online survey was distributed to currently pregnant women living in the greater Washington, DC, area of the United States from March to May of 2022. The survey included the ultra-short version of the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (µMCTQ), which was used to calculate the mid-point of sleep time (MST; a measure of chronotype) and sleep duration, as well as demographic questions. Linear regression was used to assess differences in sleep outcomes by demographic factors. A sample of n = 142 currently pregnant women were eligible for analysis. In covariate adjusted models, sleep duration was longer among respondents ages 25-34 (09:52) compared with younger respondents ages 18-24 (08:59; p = 0.014), and shorter for those with a household income ≥ 100,000 United States dollars (USD) (07:42) compared with those with a household income < 50,000 USD (08:59; p = 0.001). No differences in mean mid-point of sleep were identified across demographic factors. Differences in sleep duration by age and household income were found among currently pregnant women. Future studies should investigate sleep parameters and other factors that may influence maternal-child health disparities.


Prevention and Community Health