Neuromonitoring in Children with Cerebrovascular Disorders
Arterial ischemic stroke; Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis; Computerized tomography; Continuous electroencephalography; Digital subtraction angiography; Intracranial hemorrhage; Ischemia; Magnetic resonance imaging; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Quantitative electroencephalography; Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disorders are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The acute care of a child with an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or cerebral sinus venous thrombosis focuses on stabilizing the patient, determining the cause of the insult, and preventing secondary injury. Here, we review the use of both invasive and noninvasive neuromonitoring modalities in the care of pediatric patients with arterial ischemic stroke, nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis. METHODS: Narrative review of the literature on neuromonitoring in children with cerebrovascular disorders. RESULTS: Neuroimaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, continuous and quantitative electroencephalography, invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, and multimodal neuromonitoring may augment the acute care of children with cerebrovascular disorders. Neuromonitoring can play an essential role in the early identification of evolving injury in the aftermath of arterial ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or sinus venous thrombosis, including recurrent infarction or infarct expansion, new or recurrent hemorrhage, vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia, status epilepticus, and intracranial hypertension, among others, and this, is turn, can facilitate real-time adjustments to treatment plans. CONCLUSIONS: Our understanding of pediatric cerebrovascular disorders has increased dramatically over the past several years, in part due to advances in the neuromonitoring modalities that allow us to better understand these conditions. We are now poised, as a field, to take advantage of advances in neuromonitoring capabilities to determine how best to manage and treat acute cerebrovascular disorders in children.
Harrar, Dana B.; Sun, Lisa R.; Segal, J Bradley; Lee, Sarah; and Sansevere, Arnold J., "Neuromonitoring in Children with Cerebrovascular Disorders" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 2361.