Risk Factors for HPV-Associated Cancers among People Living with HIV in Washington, DC

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



AIDS research and human retroviruses




DC has high rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. People living with HIV (PLWH) are at risk for developing HPV-associated cancers. Previous studies identified factors that may further increase the risk of HPV-associated cancer among PLWH such as: age, race/ethnicity, sex, risk factor for HIV transmission, stage of HIV infection, and age at HIV diagnosis. The extent to which PLWH in DC are affected by HPV-associated cancers has not previously been well-described, and to our knowledge, the relationship between bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and subsequent development of HPV-associated cancer among PLWH in DC has not been explored. This was a retrospective case-control analysis of surveillance data on cancer, STIs, and HIV in Washington, DC from 1996-2015. There were 20,744 PLWH included in this study, of whom 335 (1.6%) had been diagnosed with an HPV-associated cancer. Among males living with HIV (MLWH), for every additional STI per ten person-years, risk of developing an HPV-associated cancer increased by 11%. Exposure to STIs was not a significant risk factor for HPV-associated cancer among females. Ever being diagnosed with stage three HIV infection increased risk of HPV-associated cancers among males by 109% and females living with HIV by 111% . STI exposures were associated with HPV-associated cancers among MLWH in DC and ever being diagnosed with advanced HIV infection was associated with HPV-associated cancers among all PLWH. Clinicians treating MLWH should ensure their patients receive primary HPV infection prevention and HPV-associated cancer screenings.