Neuromonitoring in neonatal critical care part I: neonatal encephalopathy and neonates with possible seizures
Mohamed El-Dib, Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. email@example.com.
Nicholas S. Abend, Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Topun Austin, Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Geraldine Boylan, INFANT Research Centre & Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
Valerie Chock, Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
M Roberta Cilio, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
Gorm Greisen, Department of Neonatology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital & Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Lena Hellström-Westas, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, and Division of Neonatology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Petra Lemmers, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Adelina Pellicer, Department of Neonatology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain; Neonatology Group, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.
Ronit M. Pressler, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, and Clinical Neuroscience, UCL- Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
Arnold Sansevere, Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences; Children's National Hospital Division of Neurophysiology, Epilepsy and Critical Care, Washington, DC, USA.
Tammy Tsuchida, Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences; Children's National Hospital Division of Neurophysiology, Epilepsy and Critical Care, Washington, DC, USA.
Sampsa Vanhatalo, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Children's Hospital, BABA Center, Neuroscience Center/HILIFE, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Courtney J. Wusthoff, Division of Child Neurology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
The blooming of neonatal neurocritical care over the last decade reflects substantial advances in neuromonitoring and neuroprotection. The most commonly used brain monitoring tools in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), full multichannel continuous EEG (cEEG), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). While some published guidelines address individual tools, there is no consensus on consistent, efficient, and beneficial use of these modalities in common NICU scenarios. This work reviews current evidence to assist decision making for best utilization of neuromonitoring modalities in neonates with encephalopathy or with possible seizures. Neuromonitoring approaches in extremely premature and critically ill neonates are discussed separately in the companion paper. IMPACT: Neuromonitoring techniques hold promise for improving neonatal care. For neonatal encephalopathy, aEEG can assist in screening for eligibility for therapeutic hypothermia, though should not be used to exclude otherwise eligible neonates. Continuous cEEG, aEEG and NIRS through rewarming can assist in prognostication. For neonates with possible seizures, cEEG is the gold standard for detection and diagnosis. If not available, aEEG as a screening tool is superior to clinical assessment alone. The use of seizure detection algorithms can help with timely seizures detection at the bedside.
El-Dib, Mohamed; Abend, Nicholas S.; Austin, Topun; Boylan, Geraldine; Chock, Valerie; Cilio, M Roberta; Greisen, Gorm; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Lemmers, Petra; Pellicer, Adelina; Pressler, Ronit M.; Sansevere, Arnold; Tsuchida, Tammy; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; and Wusthoff, Courtney J., "Neuromonitoring in neonatal critical care part I: neonatal encephalopathy and neonates with possible seizures" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 2133.