Relationships Between the Cumulative Incidences of Long-term Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: the DCCT/EDIC Study
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationships between the cumulative incidences of long-term complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and assess whether observed associations are independent of age, duration of diabetes, and glycemic levels. METHODS: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), clinically significant macular edema (CSME), reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), amputations, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality were assessed in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study over ∼30 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of complications ranged from 3% (amputations) to 37% (CSME). There were large differences in the cumulative incidence of PDR between participants with versus without prior CSME (66% vs. 15%), reduced eGFR (59% vs. 29%), and amputation (68% vs. 32%); reduced eGFR with or without prior PDR (25% vs. 9%), amputation (48% vs. 13%), and CVD (30% vs. 11%); CVD with or without prior reduced eGFR (37% vs. 14%) and amputation (50% vs. 16%); and mortality with or without prior reduced eGFR (22% vs. 9%), amputation (35% vs. 8%), and CVD (25% vs. 8%). Adjusted for age, duration of T1D, and mean updated HbA1c, the complications and associations with higher risk included PDR with CSME (hazard ratio [HR] 1.88; 95% CI 1.42, 2.50), reduced eGFR (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.01, 1.97), and CVD (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.06, 1.92); CSME with higher risk of PDR (HR 3.94; 95% CI 3.18 4.89), reduced eGFR (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.10, 2.01), and CVD (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.03, 1.78); reduced eGFR with higher risk of CVD (HR 2.09; 95% CI 1.44, 3.03), and death (HR 3.40; 95% CI 2.35, 4.92); amputation(s) with death (HR 2.97; 95% CI 1.70, 2.90); and CVD with reduced eGFR (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.08, 2.34) and death (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.32, 2.90). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term micro- and macrovascular complications and mortality are highly correlated. Age, diabetes duration, and glycemic levels do not completely explain these associations.
Bebu, Ionut; Braffett, Barbara H.; de Boer, Ian H.; Aiello, Lloyd P.; Bantle, John P.; Lorenzi, Gayle M.; Herman, William H.; Gubitosi-Klug, Rose A.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Lachin, John M.; and Molitch, Mark E., "Relationships Between the Cumulative Incidences of Long-term Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: the DCCT/EDIC Study" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 2095.
Biostatistics and Bioinformatics