Emotional Distress, Self-Management, and Glycemic Control among Participants enrolled in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness (GRADE) Study
Diabetes research and clinical practice
Depression; diabetes-related distress; metformin; self-management; treatment adherence
OBJECTIVE: We examined emotional distress in relation to metformin adherence, overall diabetes self-management, and glycemic control among adults with early type 2 diabetes (T2DM) enrolled in the GRADE study. METHODS: Linear regression models examined cross-sectional associations of baseline depression symptoms and diabetes distress with adherence to metformin, self-management, and HbA1c, adjusting for covariates. Cognitive-affective (e.g., sadness) and somatic (e.g., sleep/appetite disturbance) depression symptoms and diabetes distress subscales were also examined. RESULTS: This substudy of 1,739 GRADE participants (56% Non-Hispanic White, 18% Non-Hispanic Black, 17% Hispanic, 68% male, mean[SD] age=57.96[10.22] years, diabetes duration=4.21[2.81] years, and HbA1c=7.51[0.48]). The prevalence of clinically significant depression and diabetes distress was 8.7% and 25%, respectively. Fully adjusted models showed that depression symptoms were associated with lower self-management (p<0.0001); this effect was only significant for somatic symptoms. Diabetes distress was associated with lower adherence (p=0.0001) and self-management (p<0.0001); effects were significant for all subscales, except physician-related distress. No significant relationships of total depression symptom severity or diabetes distress with HbA1c were found. CONCLUSIONS: Depression symptoms and diabetes distress were robustly associated with problematic diabetes self-management among participants in GRADE. These findings highlight the need for routine assessment of depression symptoms and diabetes distress early in T2DM care.
Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Bebu, Ionut; Crespo-Ramos, Gladys; Hoogendoorn, Claire J.; Naik, Aanand D.; Waltje, Andrea; Walker, Elizabeth; Ehrmann, Dominic; Brown-Friday, Janet; and Cherrington, Andrea, "Emotional Distress, Self-Management, and Glycemic Control among Participants enrolled in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness (GRADE) Study" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 2075.
Biostatistics and Bioinformatics