SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine induces robust specific and cross-reactive IgG and unequal neutralizing antibodies in naive and previously infected people
SARS-CoV-2 variants; antibody response; correlates of protection; human endemic coronavirus; infection; mRNA vaccine; neutralization; serostatus determination; vaccination; variability in antibody response
Understanding vaccine-mediated protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to overcoming the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We investigate mRNA-vaccine-induced antibody responses against the reference strain, seven variants, and seasonal coronaviruses in 168 healthy individuals at three time points: before vaccination, after the first dose, and after the second dose. Following complete vaccination, both naive and previously infected individuals developed comparably robust SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies and variable levels of cross-reactive antibodies to seasonal coronaviruses. However, the strength and frequency of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in naive individuals were lower than in previously infected individuals. After the first vaccine dose, one-third of previously infected individuals lacked neutralizing antibodies; this was improved to one-fifth after the second dose. In all individuals, neutralizing antibody responses against the Alpha and Delta variants were weaker than against the reference strain. Our findings support future tailored vaccination strategies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants as mRNA-vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies are highly variable among individuals.
Narowski, Tara M.; Raphel, Kristin; Adams, Lily E.; Huang, Jenny; Vielot, Nadja A.; Jadi, Ramesh; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Lafleur, John E.; and Premkumar, Lakshmanane, "SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine induces robust specific and cross-reactive IgG and unequal neutralizing antibodies in naive and previously infected people" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 198.