Inverse Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure Is Associated with an Increased Renin-Angiotensin System Activity
angiotensin; dopamine; dopamine receptor; inverse salt sensitivity; salt resistance; saltsensitivity
High and low sodium diets are associated with increased blood pressure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The paradoxical response of elevated BP in low salt diets, aka inverse salt sensitivity (ISS), is an understudied vulnerable 11% of the adult population with yet undiscovered etiology. A linear relationship between the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the dopamine D receptor ( rs6276 and 6277), and the sodium myo-inositol cotransporter 2 (, rs11074656), as well as decreased expression of these two genes in urine-derived renal proximal tubule cells (uRPTCs) isolated from clinical study participants suggest involvement of these cells in ISS. Insight into this newly discovered paradoxical response to sodium is found by incubating cells in low sodium (LS) conditions that unveil cell physiologic differences that are then reversed by mir-485-5p miRNA blocker transfection and bypassing the genetic defect by re-expression. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important counter-regulatory mechanism to prevent hyponatremia under LS conditions. Oversensitive RAS under LS conditions could partially explain the increased mortality in ISS. Angiotensin-II (AngII, 10 nmol/L) increased sodium transport in uRPTCs to a greater extent in individuals with ISS than SR. Downstream signaling of AngII is verified by identifying lowered expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), and manganese-dependent mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) only in ISS-derived uRPTCs and not SR-derived uRPTCs when incubated in LS conditions. We conclude that and variants in ISS may cause an increased low sodium sensitivity to AngII and renal sodium reabsorption which can contribute to inverse salt-sensitive hypertension.
Gildea, John J.; Xu, Peng; Schiermeyer, Katie A.; Yue, Wei; Carey, Robert M.; Jose, Pedro A.; and Felder, Robin A., "Inverse Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure Is Associated with an Increased Renin-Angiotensin System Activity" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 1969.