Recent Developments in the Evaluation and Management of Cardiorenal Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Current problems in cardiology




Cardiorenal syndrome; chronic kidney disease; heart failure


Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is increasingly recognized diagnostic entity associated with high morbidity and mortality among acutely ill heart failure (HF) patients with acute and/ or chronic kidney diseases (CKD). While traditionally viewed as a state of decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to decreased renal perfusion, mainly due to therapeutic interventions to relieve congestive in HF, Recent insights into the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of CRS led to a broader definition and further classification of CRS into five distinct types. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the classification of CRS, highlighting the underlying common pathogenetic pathways of heart failure and kidney injury, including increased congestion, neurohormonal dysregulation, oxidative stress as well as inflammation, and cytokine storm that are particularly evident in COVID-19 patients with multiorgan failure and also in those with other disorders including sepsis, systemic lupus erythematosus and amyloidosis. In this review we also present the recent advances in the diagnostic strategies of CRS including cardiac and renal biomarkers as well as advanced cardiac and renal imaging techniques that are available to aid in the diagnosis as well as in the prognostication of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the various therapeutic options available to-date, including fluid optimization, hemofiltration, renal replacement therapy as well as the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in light of recent data from RCTs. It is important to note that, CRS population are either excluded or underrepresented, at best, in major RCTs and therefore, therapeutic recommendations are largely extrapolated from FH and CKD clinical trials.