State T21, Restrictions on Flavored E-Cigarette Products, and Non-Medical Cannabis Sales Legalization in Relation to Young Adult Reports of Vape Shop Age Verification and Product Offerings: A Multilevel Analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



International journal of environmental research and public health








age verification; flavor ban; non-medical cannabis; tobacco 21; vape shop


Vape shop practices related to age verification and product offerings (e.g., other tobacco, cannabis), which may affect young-adult tobacco/substance use, are likely impacted by state-level policies (i.e., Tobacco 21 [T21], flavored e-cigarette restrictions, non-medical cannabis legalization). Using data from young adults (18-34 years) in 6 US states representing variability in whether/when they implemented the aforementioned policies, this study focused on past 6-month e-cigarette users who visited vape shops (Wave 1 [W1]: September-December 2018, = 1127; W2: September-December 2019, = 702; W3: September-December 2020, = 549). Multilevel modeling examined T21 in relation to participants' reports of age verification at last vape shop visit (among those < 27), and flavor restrictions and cannabis legalization in relation to noticing other tobacco or cannabis products at last visit. At W1-W3, 69.7%, 78.7%, and 75.8% of participants < 27 reported age verification, and participants increasingly noticed other tobacco (W2: 36.9%; W3: 48.6%) and cannabis products (W1: 25.8%; W2: 41.3%; W3: 58.3%). State T21 was unrelated to age verification (aOR = 1.19, 95%CI = 0.80-1.79); flavored e-cigarette restrictions correlated with noticing other tobacco products (aOR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.10-3.51); flavored e-cigarette restrictions (aOR = 2.26, 95%CI = 1.57-3.24) and cannabis legalization (aOR = 2.84, 95%CI = 1.78-4.51) correlated with noticing cannabis products. Regulatory efforts must be informed by ongoing surveillance of such policies and their impact.


Prevention and Community Health