Outcome of Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Diagnosed by Fetal MRI

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Pediatric neurology






Agenesis of the corpus callosum; Brain MRI; Developmental delay; Fetal MRI; Fetal neurology


BACKGROUND: Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly utilized for prenatal diagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). This study aimed to (1) describe cases of ACC diagnosed by fetal MRI, (2) determine the frequency of postnatal confirmation by MRI, and (3) understand postnatal outcomes of infants with ACC. METHODS: Maternal records from Children's National Hospital between January 2012 and June 2019 with a prenatal neurological consultation, fetal MRI, and ACC on imaging were included. Maternal, prenatal, and postnatal infant data were collected. Each case was categorized as complete or partial ACC and isolated or complex ACC by fetal MRI and group comparisons of outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 127 maternal-fetal dyads with ACC were categorized into 45 isolated-complete, 17 isolated-partial, 46 complex-complete, and 19 complex-partial ACC. Of 75 live births, 72 had postnatal evaluations. In 43 of 59 (73%) cases with postnatal neuroimaging, prenatal ACC subcategory was confirmed. Children with isolated or complex and with partial or complete ACC had similar rates of developmental delays and epilepsy. Complex ACC cases had worse outcomes than isolated ACC, with complex ACC having more postnatal dysmorphisms and abnormal feeding and vision compared with isolated ACC. Similar neurodevelopmental outcomes were seen for partial and complete ACC. CONCLUSIONS: Children with isolated or complex ACC and with partial or complete ACC have a range of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Fetal and postnatal brain MRI is a valuable tool to understand differences of the corpus callosum that can guide genetic testing, prenatal counseling, and postnatal care.