Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Adults and Adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain: A Systematic Review of Content Validity and Feasibility Using the COSMIN Methodology

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy




assessment; clinical measurement (clinimetrics); function; knee; patellofemoral joint; psychometrics


OBJECTIVE: To assess the content validity and feasibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used to assess pain and function in adults and adolescents with patellofemoral pain (PFP). DESIGN: Systematic review. LITERATURE SEARCH: We searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Library from inception to January 6, 2022. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that described the development or evaluation of the content validity of English-language PROMs for PFP as well as their translations and cultural adaptations to different languages. DATA SYNTHESIS: Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) methodology, we determined overall ratings and quality of evidence for the relevance, comprehensiveness, and comprehensibility of PROMs. We extracted data related to feasibility for clinical use (eg, administration time and scoring ease). RESULTS: Forty-three studies for 33 PROMs were included. The overall quality of most studies was "inadequate" due to failure to engage stakeholders and/or ensure adherence to rigorous qualitative research procedures. Of all PROMs evaluated, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score - Patellofemoral subscale (KOOS-PF), was the only PROM with "sufficient" content validity components. Quality of evidence for content validity of the KOOS-PF was low. Most PROMs were rated feasible for clinical and research purposes. CONCLUSION: Most PROMs used to measure pain and function in patients with PFP have inadequate content validity. The KOOS-PF had the highest overall content validity. We recommend the KOOS-PF for evaluating pain and function (in research and clinical practice) in adults and adolescents with PFP.


Health, Human Function, and Rehabilitation Sciences