Guidelines for assessment of cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias in small animals
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
ECG; arrhythmia; cardiac electrophysiology; guidelines; small animals
Cardiac arrhythmias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although recent advances in cell-based models, including human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM), are contributing to our understanding of electrophysiology and arrhythmia mechanisms, pre-clinical animal studies of cardiovascular disease remain a mainstay. Over the past several decades, animal models of cardiovascular disease have advanced our understanding of pathological remodeling, arrhythmia mechanisms, drug effects, and have led to major improvements in pacing and defibrillation therapies. There exist a variety of methodological approaches for assessment of cardiac electrophysiology, and a plethora of parameters may be assessed with each approach. This Guidelines article will provide an overview of the strengths and limitations of several common techniques used to assess electrophysiology and arrhythmia mechanisms at the whole animal, whole heart, and tissue level, with a focus on small animal models. We also define key electrophysiological parameters that should be assessed, along with their physiological underpinnings, and the best methods with which to assess these parameters.
Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Glukhov, Alexey V.; Kay, Matthew W.; Boukens, Bastiaan J.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Delisle, Brian P.; Fabritz, Larissa; Hund, Thomas J.; Knollmann, Björn C.; Li, Na; Murray, Katherine T.; Poelzing, Steven; Quinn, T Alexander; Remme, Carol Ann; Rentschler, Stacey L.; Rose, Robert A.; and Posnack, Nikki G., "Guidelines for assessment of cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias in small animals" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 1742.