Immunoarray Measurements of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptides Combined with Other Biomarkers to Diagnose Aggressive Prostate Cancer

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Analytical chemistry








Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is related to bone metastasis and hypercalcemia in prostate and breast cancers and should be an excellent biomarker for aggressive forms of these cancers. Current clinical detection protocols for PTHrP are immunoradiometric assay and radioimmunoassay but are not sensitive enough to detect PTHrPs at early stages. We recently evaluated a prostate cancer biomarker panel, including serum monocyte differentiation antigen (CD-14), ETS-related gene protein, pigment epithelial-derived factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, with promise for identifying aggressive prostate cancers. This panel predicted the need for patient biopsy better than PSA alone. In the present paper, we report an ultrasensitive microfluidic assay for PTHrPs and evaluate their diagnostic value and the value of including them with our prior biomarker panel to diagnose aggressive forms of prostate cancer. The immunoarray features screen-printed carbon sensor electrodes coated with 5 nm glutathione gold nanoparticles with capture antibodies attached. PTHrPs are bound to a secondary antibody attached to a polyhorseradish peroxidase label and delivered to the sensors to provide high sensitivity when activated by HO and a mediator. We obtained an unprecedented 0.3 fg mL limit of detection for PTHrP bioactive moieties PTHrP 1-173 and PTHrP 1-86. We also report the first study of PTHrPs in a large serum pool to identify aggressive malignancies. In assays of 130 human patient serum samples, PTHrP levels distinguished between aggressive and indolent prostate cancers with 83-91% clinical sensitivity and 78-96% specificity. Logistic regression identified the best predictive model as a combination of PTHrP 1-86 and vascular endothelial growth factor-D. PTHrP 1-173 alone also showed a high ability to differentiate aggressive and indolent cancers.


Pharmacology and Physiology