Race Is Associated with Risk of Salvage Procedures and Postoperative Complications After Hip Procedures in Children with Cerebral Palsy

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of pediatric orthopedics




BACKGROUND: Despite the many surgical interventions available for spastic hip dysplasia in children with cerebral palsy, a radical salvage hip procedure may still ultimately be required. The purpose of this study was to assess whether race is an independent risk factor for patients with cerebral palsy to undergo a salvage hip procedure or experience postoperative complications for hip dysplasia treatment. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis utilizing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Pediatric database from 2012 to 2019. International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modifications (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM), and current procedural terminology (CPT) codes were used to identify patients with cerebral palsy undergoing hip procedures for hip dysplasia and to stratify patients into salvage or reconstructive surgeries. RESULTS: There was a total of 3906 patients with cerebral palsy between the ages of 2 and 18 years undergoing a procedure for hip dysplasia, including 1995 (51.1%) White patients, 768 (19.7%) Black patients, and 1143 (29.3%) patients from other races. Both Black (P=0.044) and White (P=0.046) races were significantly associated with undergoing a salvage versus a reconstructive hip procedure, with Black patients having an increased risk compared to White patients [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.77, confidence interval (CI) 1.02-3.07]. Only Black patients were found to have an increased risk of any postoperative complication compared to White patients, with an adjusted OR of 1.26 (CI 1.02-1.56; P=0.033). Both White (P=0.017) and black (P=0.004) races were found to be significantly associated with medical complications, with Black patients having an increased risk (adjusted OR 1.43, CI 1.12-1.84) compared to White patients. There were no significant findings between the race and risk of surgical site complications, unplanned readmissions, or reoperations. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that patient race is an independent association for the risk of pediatric patients with cerebral palsy to both undergo a salvage hip procedure and to experience postoperative medical complications, with Black patients having an increased risk compared to White. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Retrospective Cohort Study.


Orthopaedic Surgery