Joint semiparametric models for case-cohort designs

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Journal Article

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density ratio model; nonparametric likelihood; semiparametric transformation model


Two-phase studies such as case-cohort and nested case-control studies are widely used cost-effective sampling strategies. In the first phase, the observed failure/censoring time and inexpensive exposures are collected. In the second phase, a subgroup of subjects is selected for measurements of expensive exposures based on the information from the first phase. One challenging issue is how to utilize all the available information to conduct efficient regression analyses of the two-phase study data. This paper proposes a joint semiparametric modeling of the survival outcome and the expensive exposures. Specifically, we assume a class of semiparametric transformation models and a semiparametric density ratio model for the survival outcome and the expensive exposures, respectively. The class of semiparametric transformation models includes the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model as special cases. The density ratio model is flexible in modeling multivariate mixed-type data. We develop efficient likelihood-based estimation and inference procedures and establish the large sample properties of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators. Extensive numerical studies reveal that the proposed methods perform well under practical settings. The proposed methods also appear to be reasonably robust under various model mis-specifications. An application to the National Wilms Tumor Study is provided.


Biostatistics and Bioinformatics