Dose Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery Through Cardiopulmonary Bypass
The Annals of thoracic surgery
BACKGROUND: Neurologic impairments are a significant concern for survivors after pediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We have previously shown that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) delivery through CPB has the potential to mitigate the effects of CPB on neural stem/progenitor cells. This study assessed the dose effects of MSCs. METHODS: Piglets (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control, CPB, or CPB followed by MSC administration with low and high doses (10 × 10 and 100 × 10 cells per kilogram). We assessed acute dose effect on cell distribution, multiorgan functions, systemic inflammation, microglia activation, and neural stem/progenitor cell activities. RESULTS: By magnetic resonance imaging, approximately 10 times more MSCs were detected within the entire brain after high-dose delivery than after low-dose delivery. No adverse events affecting hemodynamics, various biomarkers, and neuroimaging were detected after high-dose MSC delivery. High-dose MSCs significantly increased circulating levels of interleukin 4 after CPB. Both MSC groups normalized microglia activation after CPB, demonstrating MSC-induced reduction in cerebral inflammation. There was a significant increase in neuroblasts in the subventricular zone in both treatment groups. The thickness of the most active neurogenic area within the subventricular zone was significantly increased after high-dose treatment compared with CPB and low-dose MSCs, suggesting dose-dependent effects on the neurogenic niche. CONCLUSIONS: MSC delivery through CPB is feasible up to 100 × 10 cells per kilogram. MSC treatment during cardiac surgery has the potential to reduce systemic and cerebral inflammation and to modulate responses of an active neurogenic niche to CPB. Further investigation is necessary to assess the long-term effects and to develop a more complete dose-response curve.
Kobayashi, Kei; Maeda, Takuya; Ayodeji, Mobolanle; Tu, Shao Ching; Chen, Alice; Rajtboriraks, May; Hsu, Chao-Hsiung; Tu, Tsang-Wei; Wang, Paul C.; Hanley, Patrick J.; Jonas, Richard A.; and Ishibashi, Nobuyuki, "Dose Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery Through Cardiopulmonary Bypass" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 1504.