Vitamin D status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome by race and Hispanic origin in U.S. adults: findings from 2007-2014 NHANES

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



The American journal of clinical nutrition




NHANES; metabolic syndrome; race-ethnicity; vitamin D


BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status has been found to be inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in some studies. Vitamin D status varies by race and ethnicity, and the association of MetS with Vitamin D status in U.S. adults and by race and Hispanic origin has not been evaluated extensively. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between Vitamin D status and MetS overall, and across race and Hispanic origin groups in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007 to 2014. DESIGN: The total sample included 8,639 adults, 20 years of age and over. Serum Vitamin D was measured using a standardized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and was categorized using data driven tertiles. MetS was defined using measured waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted (accounting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, dietary supplement use, and BMI) to examine the associations of serum Vitamin D with MetS among adults overall, and by race and Hispanic origin. RESULTS: Serum Vitamin D in the lowest tertile (≤ 56 nmol/L) was significantly associated with increased odds of MetS compared to the highest tertile (> 77.9 nmol/L); fully adjusted model OR: 1.85 and 95% CI: 1.51, 2.27. Inverse associations were noted for all race-Hispanic origin groups: non-Hispanic White (OR: 2.24; and 95% CI: 1.67, 3.01), non-Hispanic Black (OR: 1.56; and 95% CI: 1.06, 2.29) and Hispanic (OR: 1.48; and 95% CI: 1.03, 2.14) adults. CONCLUSIONS: Lower Vitamin D status was significantly associated with MetS among U.S. adults after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, dietary supplement use, and BMI. This finding was noted across all race and Hispanic origin groups, although the strength of the association varied being strongest for non-Hispanic White adults.


Exercise and Nutrition Sciences