Abnormal Diastolic Hemodynamic Forces: A Link Between Right Ventricular Wall Motion, Intracardiac Flow, and Pulmonary Regurgitation in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine






4D flow; Tetralogy of Fallot; cardiac magnetic resonance; feature tracking; hemodynamic force


Background and Objective: The effect of chronic pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (RTOF) patients is well recognized by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the link between RV wall motion, intracardiac flow and PR has not been established. Hemodynamic force (HDF) represents the global force exchanged between intracardiac blood volume and endocardium, measurable by 4D flow or by a novel mathematical model of wall motion. In our study, we used this novel methodology to derive HDF in a cohort of RTOF patients, exclusively using routine CMR imaging. Methods: RTOF patients and controls with CMR imaging were retrospectively included. Three-dimensional (3D) models of RV were segmented, including RV outflow tract (RVOT). Feature-tracking software (QStrain 2.0, Medis Medical Imaging Systems, Leiden, Netherlands) captured endocardial contours from long/short-axis cine and used to reconstruct RV wall motion. A global HDF vector was computed from the moving surface, then decomposed into amplitude/impulse of three directional components based on reference (Apical-to-Basal, Septal-to-Free Wall and Diaphragm-to-RVOT direction). HDF were compared and correlated against CMR and exercise stress test parameters. A subset of RTOF patients had 4D flow that was used to derive vorticity (for correlation) and HDF (for comparison against cine method). Results: 68 RTOF patients and 20 controls were included. RTOF patients had increased diastolic HDF amplitude in all three directions (<0.05). PR% correlated with Diaphragm-RVOT HDF amplitude/impulse ( = 0.578, <0.0001, = 0.508, < 0.0001, respectively). RV ejection fraction modestly correlated with global HDF amplitude ( = 0.2916, = 0.031). VO correlated with Septal-to-Free Wall HDF impulse ( = 0.536, = 0.007). Diaphragm-to-RVOT HDF correlated with RVOT vorticity ( = 0.4997, = 0.001). There was no significant measurement bias between Cine-derived HDF and 4D flow-derived HDF by Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusion: RTOF patients have abnormal diastolic HDF that is correlated to PR, RV function, exercise capacity and vorticity. HDF can be derived from conventional cine, and is a potential link between RV wall motion and intracardiac flow from PR in RTOF patients.