Title

Normal Table of Xenopus development: a new graphical resource

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

7-15-2022

Journal

Development (Cambridge, England)

Volume

149

Issue

14

DOI

10.1242/dev.200356

Keywords

Xenopus laevis; AMA; Amphibian development; EAMA; Embryo; FETAX; Metamorphosis; Normal table

Abstract

Normal tables of development are essential for studies of embryogenesis, serving as an important resource for model organisms, including the frog Xenopus laevis. Xenopus has long been used to study developmental and cell biology, and is an increasingly important model for human birth defects and disease, genomics, proteomics and toxicology. Scientists utilize Nieuwkoop and Faber's classic 'Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin)' and accompanying illustrations to enable experimental reproducibility and reuse the illustrations in new publications and teaching. However, it is no longer possible to obtain permission for these copyrighted illustrations. We present 133 new, high-quality illustrations of X. laevis development from fertilization to metamorphosis, with additional views that were not available in the original collection. All the images are available on Xenbase, the Xenopus knowledgebase (http://www.xenbase.org/entry/zahn.do), for download and reuse under an attributable, non-commercial creative commons license. Additionally, we have compiled a 'Landmarks Table' of key morphological features and marker gene expression that can be used to distinguish stages quickly and reliably (https://www.xenbase.org/entry/landmarks-table.do). This new open-access resource will facilitate Xenopus research and teaching in the decades to come.

Department

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology

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