A randomized controlled pilot trial of anakinra for hemodialysis inflammation
C-reactive protein; IL-1; IL-6; IL-I receptor antagonist; end-stage kidney disease; inflammation
Chronic inflammation is highly prevalent among patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Inhibiting inflammation with anti-cytokine therapy has been proposed but not well studied in this population. Therefore, we conducted the ACTION trial, a pilot, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of an IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, to evaluate safety, tolerability, and feasibility, and explore efficacy. Eighty hemodialysis patients with plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) 2 mg/L and above were randomized 1:1 to placebo or anakinra 100 mg, three times per week via the hemodialysis circuit for 24 weeks, with an additional 24 weeks of post-treatment safety monitoring. Efficacy outcomes included change in hsCRP (primary), cytokines, and patient-reported outcomes. Rates of serious adverse events and deaths were similar with anakinra and placebo (serious adverse events: 2.71 vs 2.74 events/patient-year; deaths: 0.12 vs 0.22 events/patient-year). The rate of adverse events of interest (including infections and cytopenias) was significantly lower with anakinra than placebo (0.48 vs 1.40 events/patient-year). Feasibility was demonstrated by attaining the enrollment target, a retention rate of 80%, and administration of 72% of doses. The median decrease in hsCRP from baseline to Week 24 was 41% in the anakinra group and 6% in the placebo group, a between-group difference that was not statistically significant. For IL-6, the median decreases were significant; 25% and 0% in the anakinra and placebo groups, respectively. An effect of anakinra on patient-reported outcomes was not evident. Thus, anakinra was well tolerated and did not increase infections or cytopenias. The promising safety data and potential efficacy on CRP and IL-6 provide support for conducting definitive trials of IL-1 inhibition to improve outcomes in hemodialysis patients.
Dember, Laura M.; Hung, Adriana; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Hsu, Jesse Y.; Raj, Dominic S.; Charytan, David M.; Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Regunathan-Shenk, Renu; Landis, J Richard; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kliger, Alan S.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; and Ikizler, T Alp, "A randomized controlled pilot trial of anakinra for hemodialysis inflammation" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 1284.