Physical Function in Middle-aged and Older Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Long-term Follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of functional limitations in middle-aged and older adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional limitations were assessed for 1,094 participants in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a multicenter, longitudinal, observational follow-up of participants with type 1 diabetes randomly assigned to intensive or conventional diabetes therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). The primary outcome measure was a score <10 on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). The secondary outcome, self-reported functional limitation, was assessed by written questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to assess associations of both outcomes with demographic and clinical factors (glycemic and nonglycemic factors, micro- and macrovascular complications, DCCT cohort, and treatment assignment). RESULTS: Participants were 53% male, with mean ± SD age 59.5 ± 6.8 years and diabetes duration 37.9 ± 4.9 years. The prevalence of SPPB score <10 was 21%. The prevalence of self-reported functional limitations was 48%. While DCCT treatment assignment was not associated with physical function outcomes measured ∼25 years after the end of the DCCT, the time-weighted mean DCCT/EDIC HbA1c was associated with both outcomes. Other clinical factors associated with both outcomes in multivariable analyses were BMI, general psychological distress, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the middle-aged and older adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes reported functional limitations, which were associated with higher HbA1c and BMI, general psychological distress, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Future research is needed to determine whether these findings are generalizable.
Martin, Catherine L.; Trapani, Victoria R.; Backlund, Jye-Yu C.; Lee, Pearl; Braffett, Barbara H.; Bebu, Ionut; Lachin, John M.; Jacobson, Alan M.; Gubitosi-Klug, Rose; and Herman, William H., "Physical Function in Middle-aged and Older Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Long-term Follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 1258.
Biostatistics and Bioinformatics