Anatomical and Technical Considerations of Robot-Assisted Cervical Pedicle Screw Placement: A Cadaveric Study
Global spine journal
anatomical; cadaver; cervical pedicle screw; robot-assisted; technical
STUDY DESIGN: Cadaver study. OBJECTIVES: Assess the feasibility of robot-assisted cervical pedicle screw (RA-CPS) placement and understand the anatomical considerations of this technique. METHODS: Four cadaver specimens free from bony pathology were acquired. Anatomical considerations, such as pedicle width (PW) and height (PH), transverse pedicle angle (TPA), and maximal screw length (MSL), were recorded from preoperative computational tomography (CT) scans. Intraoperative cone-beam CT was acquired and registered to the robotic system. After cervical levels were segmented, screw sizes and trajectories were planned, and RA-CPS were placed. Accuracy was assessed using Gertzbein and Robbin's classification on postoperative CT scans. RESULTS: Thirty-five RA-CPS were placed. Major breaches (≥Grade C) occurred in 28.57% screws. Grade A or B accuracy was found in 71.43% of screws, with the most common direction of breach being medial (81.3%). The greatest proportion of breach per level occurred in the upper subaxial levels, (C3:71.4%, C4 66.6%, C5:50%) which had the smallest PW (C3: 4.34 ± .96 mm, C4: 4.48 ± .60, C5: 5.76 ± 1.11). PH was greatest at C2 (8.14 ± 1.89 mm) and ranged subaxial from 6.36 mm (C3) to 7.48 mm (C7). The mean PW was 5.37 mm and increased caudally from 4.34 mm (C3) to 6.31 mm (C7). The mean TPA was 39.9° and decreased moving caudally 46.9°) to C7 (34.4°). The MSL was 37.1 mm and increased from C2 (26.3 mm) to C7 (41.0 mm). CONCLUSION: RA-CPS has the potential to be feasible, but technological and instrument modifications are necessary to increase the accuracy in the cervical region.
Mao, Jennifer Z.; Soliman, Mohamed A.; Karamian, Brian A.; Khan, Asham; Fritz, Alexander G.; Avasthi, Naval; DiMaria, Stephen; Levy, Bennett R.; O'Connor, Timothy E.; Schroeder, Gregory; Pollina, John; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; and Mullin, Jeffrey P., "Anatomical and Technical Considerations of Robot-Assisted Cervical Pedicle Screw Placement: A Cadaveric Study" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 117.
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