Title

Methods in HIV-Related Intersectional Stigma Research: Core Elements and Opportunities

Authors

Valerie A. Earnshaw, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
H Jonathon Rendina, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Greta R. Bauer, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Stephen Bonett, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Lisa Bowleg, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Joseph Carter, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Devin English, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
M Reuel Friedman, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Mallory O. Johnson, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Donna H. McCree, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Torsten B. Neilands, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Katherine G. Quinn, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Gabriel Robles, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Ayden I. Scheim, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Justin C. Smith, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Laramie R. Smith, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Laurel Sprague, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Tamara Taggart, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Alexander C. Tsai, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Bulent Turan, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Lawrence H. Yang, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
José A. Bauermeister, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Deanna L. Kerrigan, Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

6-1-2022

Journal

American journal of public health

Volume

112

Issue

S4

DOI

10.2105/AJPH.2021.306710

Abstract

Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of studying and addressing intersectional stigma within the field of HIV. Yet, researchers have, arguably, struggled to operationalize intersectional stigma. To ensure that future research and methodological innovation is guided by frameworks from which this area of inquiry has arisen, we propose a series of core elements for future HIV-related intersectional stigma research. These core elements include multidimensional, multilevel, multidirectional, and action-oriented methods that sharpen focus on, and aim to transform, interlocking and reinforcing systems of oppression. We further identify opportunities for advancing HIV-related intersectional stigma research, including reducing barriers to and strengthening investments in resources, building capacity to engage in research and implementation of interventions, and creating meaningful pathways for HIV-related intersectional stigma research to produce structural change. Ultimately, the expected payoff for incorporating these core elements is a body of HIV-related intersectional stigma research that is both better aligned with the transformative potential of intersectionality and better positioned to achieve the goals of Ending the HIV Epidemic in the United States and globally. (. 2022;112(S4):S413-S419. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306710).

Department

Epidemiology

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