Title

Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers Are Consistently Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Asian and European Populations

Authors

Jowy Yi Seah, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.
Yueheng Hong, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.
Anna Cichońska, Nightingale Health Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
Charumathi Sabanayagam, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
Simon Nusinovici, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
Tien Yin Wong, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
Ching-Yu Cheng, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
Pekka Jousilahti, Department of Public Health Solutions, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
Annamari Lundqvist, Department of Public Health Solutions, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
Markus Perola, Department of Public Health Solutions, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
Veikko Salomaa, Department of Public Health Solutions, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
E Shyong Tai, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.
Peter Würtz, Nightingale Health Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
Rob M. van Dam, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.
Xueling Sim, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

6-16-2022

Journal

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

Volume

107

Issue

7

DOI

10.1210/clinem/dgac212

Keywords

HDL; LDL; NMR; aromatic amino acids; branched-chain amino acids; cholesterol; fatty acids; glycoprotein acetyls; inflammation; lipoprotein; metabolomics; triglycerides; type 2 diabetes

Abstract

CONTEXT: While Asians have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) than Europeans for a given body mass index (BMI), it remains unclear whether the same markers of metabolic pathways are associated with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated associations between metabolic biomarkers and incidence of T2D in 3 major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) and a European population. METHODS: We analyzed data from adult males and females of 2 cohorts from Singapore (n = 6393) consisting of Chinese, Malays, and Indians and 3 cohorts of European-origin participants from Finland (n = 14 558). We used nuclear magnetic resonance to quantify 154 circulating metabolic biomarkers at baseline and performed logistic regression to assess associations with T2D risk adjusted for age, sex, BMI and glycemic markers. RESULTS: Of the 154 metabolic biomarkers, 59 were associated with higher risk of T2D in both Asians and Europeans (P < 0.0003, Bonferroni-corrected). These included branched chain and aromatic amino acids, the inflammatory marker glycoprotein acetyls, total fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, apolipoprotein B, larger very low-density lipoprotein particle sizes, and triglycerides. In addition, 13 metabolites were associated with a lower T2D risk in both populations, including omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and larger high-density lipoprotein particle sizes. Associations were consistent within the Asian ethnic groups (all Phet ≥ 0.05) and largely consistent for the Asian and European populations (Phet ≥ 0.05 for 128 of 154 metabolic biomarkers). CONCLUSION: Metabolic biomarkers across several biological pathways were consistently associated with T2D risk in Asians and Europeans.

Department

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences

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