Trends in utilization of laparoscopic colectomy according to race: an analysis of the NIS database

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Surgical endoscopy




Disparity; Laparoscopic colectomy; Race; Utilization


BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic colectomy has been associated with improved recovery and decreased complications when compared to an open approach. Consequently, the rates of laparoscopic colectomy have increased. Race has been identified as a factor that influences a patient's likelihood of undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the rates of laparoscopic colectomy stratified by race over time. METHODS: Patients were selected using procedure codes for colectomy within the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2009 to 2018. The primary independent variable was race (Black, BL; Hispanic, HI; White, WH), and the primary outcome was surgical approach (laparoscopic vs open). Covariates included age, sex, case complexity, insurance status, income, year of surgery, urbanicity, region, bedsize, and teaching status. We examined the univariable association of race with laparoscopic vs open colectomy with chi-square. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of race with procedure type adjusting for covariates. All analyses were done using SAS (version 9.4, Cary, NC) with p < .05 considered significant. RESULTS: 267,865 patients (25,000 BL, 19,685 HI, and 223,180 WH) were identified. Laparoscopy was used in 47% of cases, and this varied significantly by race (BL 44%, HI 49%, WH 47%, p < .0001). After adjusting for covariates, Black patients had significantly lower adjusted odds of undergoing laparoscopic colectomy vs White patients (aOR 0.92, p < 0.0001). Utilization of laparoscopy was similar in Hispanic compared to White patients (aOR 1.00, p = 0.9667). Racial disparity in the adjusted odds of undergoing laparoscopic colectomy was persistent over time. CONCLUSION: Race was independently associated with the rate of laparoscopic colectomy, with Black patients less likely to receive laparoscopic surgery than White patients. This disparity persisted over a decade. Attention should be paid to increasing the rates of laparoscopic colectomy in under-represented populations in order to optimize surgical care and address racial disparities.