School of Medicine and Health Sciences Poster Presentations

Title

Where She Lives: The Impact of Neighborhood Location and Violent Crime Exposure Risk on Maternal Mortality in the United States- A Case Study of Baltimore, MD

Poster Number

335

Document Type

Poster

Status

Medical Student

Abstract Category

Women/Child Health

Keywords

Pregnancy, maternal mortality, neighborhood, crime

Publication Date

Spring 2018

Abstract

Abstract Title:

Where She Lives: The Impact of Neighborhood Location and Violent Crime Exposure Risk on Maternal Mortality in the United States- A Case Study of Baltimore, MD

Primary Presenter Full Name:

Linda Ifeoma Ataifo

Abstract Text (should not exceed 400 words):

Maternal mortality continues to remain a public health crisis, especially in the United States. Between 1990 and 2013, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the US rose from 12 to 28 maternal deaths per 100,000 births, higher than most developed nations.[1] This issue is even more concerning when discovering that more than 50% of said maternal deaths in the USA have been deemed preventable.[2] Equally as concerning is the increasing racial disparity that persists in the US regarding maternal mortality. According to the CDC, Black mothers are 3-4 times more likely to die in child birth as compared to white mothers (Figure 1). In seeking to address this disparity and the maternal mortality crisis in general, public health leaders in the US have largely focused on viewing the narrative of birth outcomes and racial disparities as a binary of lack of access and utilization of resources at appropriate stages in the pregnancy process and poor maternal health behaviors due to factors largely influenced by income and education.

This focus on maternal behaviors however misses the mark in addressing however a rising and ever-present concern for those taking care of pregnant and postpartum women, how where one lives and the risk of violence plays a role in their lives and health outcomes.

Through a review of the current literature, national health databases, and state specific maternal mortality review annual reports over the last three decades, this paper aims to answer to show that pregnant and postpartum patients are not only at increased risk of mortality, specifically homicide and suicide due to their situational circumstance but that where they reside, their specific neighborhood, may also play a statistically significant role in increasing their risk of being victims of substance abuse, violence and trauma. Through unmasking how place and crime intercede and impact maternal health outcomes, specifically through a case study of Baltimore City, Maryland, this paper hopes to illuminate a more refreshed way of viewing maternal mortality and offer more tailored solutions than previously presented or publicly acknowledged.

[1] Kassebaum, Nicholas J et al. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.The Lancet , Volume 388 , Issue 10053 , 1775 - 1812

[2] Kassebaum, Nicholas J et al. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.The Lancet , Volume 388 , Issue 10053 , 1775 - 1812

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Where She Lives: The Impact of Neighborhood Location and Violent Crime Exposure Risk on Maternal Mortality in the United States- A Case Study of Baltimore, MD

Abstract Title:

Where She Lives: The Impact of Neighborhood Location and Violent Crime Exposure Risk on Maternal Mortality in the United States- A Case Study of Baltimore, MD

Primary Presenter Full Name:

Linda Ifeoma Ataifo

Abstract Text (should not exceed 400 words):

Maternal mortality continues to remain a public health crisis, especially in the United States. Between 1990 and 2013, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the US rose from 12 to 28 maternal deaths per 100,000 births, higher than most developed nations.[1] This issue is even more concerning when discovering that more than 50% of said maternal deaths in the USA have been deemed preventable.[2] Equally as concerning is the increasing racial disparity that persists in the US regarding maternal mortality. According to the CDC, Black mothers are 3-4 times more likely to die in child birth as compared to white mothers (Figure 1). In seeking to address this disparity and the maternal mortality crisis in general, public health leaders in the US have largely focused on viewing the narrative of birth outcomes and racial disparities as a binary of lack of access and utilization of resources at appropriate stages in the pregnancy process and poor maternal health behaviors due to factors largely influenced by income and education.

This focus on maternal behaviors however misses the mark in addressing however a rising and ever-present concern for those taking care of pregnant and postpartum women, how where one lives and the risk of violence plays a role in their lives and health outcomes.

Through a review of the current literature, national health databases, and state specific maternal mortality review annual reports over the last three decades, this paper aims to answer to show that pregnant and postpartum patients are not only at increased risk of mortality, specifically homicide and suicide due to their situational circumstance but that where they reside, their specific neighborhood, may also play a statistically significant role in increasing their risk of being victims of substance abuse, violence and trauma. Through unmasking how place and crime intercede and impact maternal health outcomes, specifically through a case study of Baltimore City, Maryland, this paper hopes to illuminate a more refreshed way of viewing maternal mortality and offer more tailored solutions than previously presented or publicly acknowledged.

[1] Kassebaum, Nicholas J et al. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.The Lancet , Volume 388 , Issue 10053 , 1775 - 1812

[2] Kassebaum, Nicholas J et al. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.The Lancet , Volume 388 , Issue 10053 , 1775 - 1812