Milken Institute School of Public Health Poster Presentations (Marvin Center & Video)

Title

Urinary Sucralose Concentrations Before and After 8 weeks of Diet Soda Ingestion

Poster Number

80

Document Type

Poster

Status

Undergraduate Student

Abstract Category

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences

Keywords

Low-calorie sweetener (LCS), urinary LCS concentrations, diet soda consumption

Publication Date

Spring 2018

Abstract

Background: Products containing low-calorie sweeteners (LCS), including acesulfame-potassium, aspartame, saccharine, and sucralose are frequently promoted as healthier alternatives to sugar-laden foods and beverages. The effects of LCS on metabolic health, however, remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the changes in urinary LCS concentrations after 8 weeks of three times daily diet soda consumption.

Methods: Urine samples were collected from 8 females, 18-25 years of age, with overweight and mild to moderate obesity at baseline and after the eight-week intervention. We specifically enrolled individuals who did not habitually consume LCS, based on self-report. During the intervention, study participants consumed diet soda containing sucralose and acesulfame-potassium for eight weeks, three times daily (dose of approximately 3 mg/kg/day sucralose and 1.75 mg/kg/day acesulfame-potassium for average 70kg adult). They were instructed not to change their normal eating habits, and to maintain their weight throughout the study. Compliance was evaluated by collecting empty soda cans from participants and measuring urinary LCS concentrations from urine samples collected at the baseline and post-intervention visits.

Results: With the exception of one participant who had trace urinary LCS concentrations at baseline, neither sucralose nor acesulfame-potassium were detected in the remaining seven urine samples prior to the intervention. Following eight weeks of diet soda consumption, urinary LCS concentrations increased dramatically in seven of the eight individuals. Peak sucralose and acesulfame-potassium concentrations ranged from 2,941 – 5,010 ng/mL and 22,869 – 55,204 ng/mL, respectively. Despite the large variability in concentrations measured, individuals with the highest urinary sucralose concentrations also had the highest acesulfame-potassium concentrations. Self-reported compliance with diet soda consumption instructions was similar across the study participants.

Conclusions: While LCS concentrations in urine varied greatly across individuals, seven of the eight post-intervention urine samples contained significantly elevated concentrations of both sucralose and acesulfame-potassium, as expected. Our data therefore suggest that participants did indeed ingest diet soda in accordance with study instructions. However, the marked inter-individual differences in LCS concentrations suggests that there may be differences in absorption, distribution, or clearance of LCS based on demographic, genetic, or metabolic characteristics, which requires further study.

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Urinary Sucralose Concentrations Before and After 8 weeks of Diet Soda Ingestion

Background: Products containing low-calorie sweeteners (LCS), including acesulfame-potassium, aspartame, saccharine, and sucralose are frequently promoted as healthier alternatives to sugar-laden foods and beverages. The effects of LCS on metabolic health, however, remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the changes in urinary LCS concentrations after 8 weeks of three times daily diet soda consumption.

Methods: Urine samples were collected from 8 females, 18-25 years of age, with overweight and mild to moderate obesity at baseline and after the eight-week intervention. We specifically enrolled individuals who did not habitually consume LCS, based on self-report. During the intervention, study participants consumed diet soda containing sucralose and acesulfame-potassium for eight weeks, three times daily (dose of approximately 3 mg/kg/day sucralose and 1.75 mg/kg/day acesulfame-potassium for average 70kg adult). They were instructed not to change their normal eating habits, and to maintain their weight throughout the study. Compliance was evaluated by collecting empty soda cans from participants and measuring urinary LCS concentrations from urine samples collected at the baseline and post-intervention visits.

Results: With the exception of one participant who had trace urinary LCS concentrations at baseline, neither sucralose nor acesulfame-potassium were detected in the remaining seven urine samples prior to the intervention. Following eight weeks of diet soda consumption, urinary LCS concentrations increased dramatically in seven of the eight individuals. Peak sucralose and acesulfame-potassium concentrations ranged from 2,941 – 5,010 ng/mL and 22,869 – 55,204 ng/mL, respectively. Despite the large variability in concentrations measured, individuals with the highest urinary sucralose concentrations also had the highest acesulfame-potassium concentrations. Self-reported compliance with diet soda consumption instructions was similar across the study participants.

Conclusions: While LCS concentrations in urine varied greatly across individuals, seven of the eight post-intervention urine samples contained significantly elevated concentrations of both sucralose and acesulfame-potassium, as expected. Our data therefore suggest that participants did indeed ingest diet soda in accordance with study instructions. However, the marked inter-individual differences in LCS concentrations suggests that there may be differences in absorption, distribution, or clearance of LCS based on demographic, genetic, or metabolic characteristics, which requires further study.