Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



The American journal of emergency medicine




COVID-19; Dermatology; Gastrointestinal; Hematology; Nephrology; Neurology; Psychiatry; SARS-CoV-2.


INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) is a highly infectious viral syndrome currently threatening millions of people worldwide. It is widely recognized as a disease of the pulmonary system, presenting with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. However, a number of extrapulmonary manifestations have been described in the literature.

OBJECTIVE: In this review, we seek to provide a comprehensive summary of the hematologic, gastroenterological, renal, dermatologic, neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations of COVID-19.

DISCUSSION: Hematological presentations of COVID-19 include laboratory abnormalities such as decreased total lymphocyte count, prolonged prothrombin time (PT), elevated d-dimer, and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Several of these findings are associated with increased mortality among infected patients. The most common gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Furthermore, presence of viral RNA in patient stool suggests the possibility of additional testing modalities for COVID-19. Nephrological findings such as proteinuria, hematuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine levels have been observed. Additionally, several studies demonstrated that patients with COVID-19 who developed acute kidney injury (AKI) had a greater risk of mortality. The virus can also present with cutaneous symptoms such as erythematous rashes, urticaria, and chicken pox-like lesions. Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been described in the literature, and patients can exhibit findings consistent with viral encephalitis, cerebral vascular disease, peripheral nerve disorders, and psychosis.

CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 does usually present primarily with respiratory symptoms, the extra-pulmonary manifestations of the virus are unpredictable and varied. Better understanding and awareness of these symptoms can lead to more efficient diagnosis, rapid treatment, isolation, and decreased spread of the disease.


This is an open access PubMed Central article.

Peer Reviewed


Open Access


Find in your library