A legal analysis released by The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation affirms the legality under federal and state law of physician ranking systems used by health plan provider networks. This analysis examines seven types of possible legal allegations against physicians tiering, concluding how the approach is undertaken plays a significant role in determining legal backlash.
Rosenbaum, S., Kornblet, S., & Borzi, P. C. (2007). An assessment of legal issues raised in "high performing" health plan quality and efficiency tiering Arrangements: Can the patient be saved?. Washington, D.C.: Department of Health Policy, George Washington University Medical Center.